Published semiannually by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center (BGC) in New York City, West 86th reaffirms the BGC's commitment to expanding the conversation regarding the content, meaning, and significance of objects. The journal focuses on scholarship in material culture, design history, and the decorative arts. West 86th is available in print and online and includes scholarly articles, review articles, primary source translations, critical book, catalog, and exhibition reviews, research inquiries, letters to the editor, and supplementary digital material integral to articles. Articles are subject to double-blind peer assessment. The journal welcomes submissions from scholars worldwide. All manuscripts may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor.

For submissions information and guidelines, please visit http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/wes/instruct

Opinions expressed in this journal are not necessarily those of the editors, the Bard Graduate Center, or Bard College.

© Copyright 2016 by The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, and Material Culture. All rights reserved.

West 86th (formerly known as Studies in the Decorative Arts) is indexed and abstracted in Art Index and Art Abstracts, in Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), in Design and Applied Arts Index (DAAI), in ARTbibliographies Modern, (ABM) in ARTbibliographies Current Titles, in Book Review Index (BRI), in Historical Abstracts, and in America: History and Life.

West 86th (ISSN 2153-5531; E-ISSN: 2153-5558) is published in print twice a year on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center in New York City by the University of Chicago Press, 1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. For subscriptions, renewals, address changes, and claims, contact customer service at 1.800.705.1878 (USA/Canada) or 1.773.753.3347 or email subscriptions@press.uchicago.edu. For permission to reprint, email permissions@press.uchicago.edu. For inquires about advertising, visit http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/wes/advertise or email j-advertising@press.uchicago.edu. The individual subscription rate for 2016 is $35.  For other prices, including rates for individual non-U.S. subscribers, reduced rates for Friends of the BCG and members of CAA and ARLIS, and rates for institutional subscribers, visit www.journals.uchicago.edu/wes. Free or deeply discounted access is available in most developing nations through the Chicago Emerging Nations Initiative (www.journals.uchicago.edu/inst/ceni).

Photographs were taken or supplied by the lending institutions, organizations, or individuals credited in the picture captions and are protected by copyright. Permission has been sought for use of all copyrighted illustrations in this volume. In several instances, despite extensive research, it has not been possible to locate the original copyright holder. Copyright owners of these works should contact the Bard Graduate Center, 38 West 86th Street, New York, NY 10024.

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Paul Stirton, Editor-in-Chief


Daniel Lee, Managing Editor


Laura Grey, Desginer

Isabella Lettere
, Editorial Fellow



Contributing Editors (for West 86th Online)

Ben Kafka, NYU

Jeffrey Schnapp, 
Harvard University




Board of Editorial Advisors

Rebecca Arnold, Courtauld Institute of Art, London


Zainab Bahrani, Columbia University


Barry Bergdoll, MoMA, Columbia University


Dilys Blum, Philadelphia Museum of Art


Edward S. Cooke Jr., Yale University


David Crowley, Royal College of Art, London


Victoria de Grazia, Columbia University


Lothar von Falkenhausen, University of California, Los Angeles


Finbarr Barry Flood, New York University


Alden R. Gordon, Trinity College, Hartford


Tag Gronberg, Birkbeck, University of London


Christine Guth,Victoria and Albert Museum / Royal College of Art, London


Christopher Hallett, University of California, Berkeley


Christopher M. S. Johns, Vanderbilt University


Laurel Kendall, American Museum of Natural History, New York


Pamela O. Long, Washington, DC


Sara Pennell, Roehampton University, UK


Jennifer L. Roberts, Harvard University


Linda Safran, Research Fellow, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto; Editor, Gesta


Lorenz Seelig, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich


Debora Silverman, University of California, Los Angeles


John Styles, University of Hertfordshire, UK


Nicholas Thomas, University of Cambridge


Dora Thornton, British Museum, London


Charlotte Townsend-Gault, University of British Columbia




ISSN 2153-5531