Published semiannually by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center (BGC) in New York City, West 86th reaffirms the BGC’s commitment to expanding the conversation regarding the content, meaning, and significance of objects. The journal focuses on scholarship in material culture, design history, and the decorative arts. West 86th is available in print and online and includes scholarly articles, review articles, primary source translations, critical book, catalog, and exhibition reviews, research inquiries, letters to the editor, and supplementary digital material integral to articles. Articles are subject to double-blind peer assessment. The journal welcomes submissions from scholars worldwide. All manuscripts may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor.

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Opinions expressed in this journal are not necessarily those of the editors, Bard Graduate Center, or Bard College.

© Copyright 2020 by The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, and Material Culture. All rights reserved.

West 86th (formerly known as Studies in the Decorative Arts) is indexed and abstracted in Art Index and Art Abstracts, in Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), in Design and Applied Arts Index (DAAI), in ARTbibliographies Modern, (ABM) in ARTbibliographies Current Titles, in Book Review Index (BRI), in Historical Abstracts, and in America: History and Life.

West 86th (ISSN 2153-5531; E-ISSN: 2153-5558) is published in print twice a year on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center in New York City by the University of Chicago Press, 1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. For questions about subscriptions, renewals, address changes, and claims, contact customer service at 1.800.705.1878 (USA/Canada) or 1.773.753.3347 or email For permission to reprint, email

Photographs were taken or supplied by the lending institutions, organizations, or individuals credited in the picture captions and are protected by copyright. Permission has been sought for use of all copyrighted illustrations in this volume. In several instances, despite extensive research, it has not been possible to locate the original copyright holder. Copyright owners of these works should contact the Bard Graduate Center, 38 West 86th Street, New York, NY 10024.


Paul Stirton, Editor-in-Chief

Freyja Hartzell, Editor

Caspar Meyer, Editor

Ittai Weinryb, Editor

Daniel Lee, Managing Editor

Laura Grey, Designer

Board of Editorial Advisors:

Rebecca Arnold, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

Zainab Bahrani, Columbia University

Barry Bergdoll, MoMA, Columbia University

Dilys Blum, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Edward S. Cooke Jr., Yale University

David Crowley, Royal College of Art, London

Victoria de Grazia, Columbia University

Lothar von Falkenhausen, University of California, Los Angeles

Finbarr Barry Flood, New York University

Alden R. Gordon, Trinity College, Hartford

Tag Gronberg, Birkbeck, University of London

Christine Guth,Victoria and Albert Museum / Royal College of Art, London

Christopher Hallett, University of California, Berkeley

Christopher M. S. Johns, Vanderbilt University

Laurel Kendall, American Museum of Natural History, New York

Pamela O. Long, Washington, DC

Sara Pennell, Roehampton University, UK

Jennifer L. Roberts, Harvard University

Linda Safran, Research Fellow, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto

Lorenz Seelig, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich

Debora Silverman, University of California, Los Angeles

John Styles, University of Hertfordshire, UK

Nicholas Thomas, University of Cambridge

Dora Thornton, British Museum, London

Charlotte Townsend-Gault, University of British Columbia

ISSN 2153-5531