Published semiannually by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center (BGC) in New York City, West 86th reaffirms the BGC’s commitment to expanding the conversation regarding the content, meaning, and significance of objects. The journal focuses on scholarship in material culture, design history, and the decorative arts. West 86th is available in print and online and includes scholarly articles, review articles, primary source translations, critical book, catalog, and exhibition reviews, research inquiries, letters to the editor, and supplementary digital material integral to articles. Articles are subject to double-blind peer assessment. The journal welcomes submissions from scholars worldwide. All manuscripts may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor.
For detailed submissions information and guidelines, please visit http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/wes/instruct
Both individual and institutional subscriptions are available. To see rates and information and to subscribe (or renew), please visit http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/journals/subscribe/wes.html
For the full contents of the latest issue as well as all back issues of both West 86th and Studies in the Decorative Arts, please visit http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/wes
Opinions expressed in this journal are not necessarily those of the editors, Bard Graduate Center, or Bard College.
© Copyright 2020 by The Bard Graduate Center: Decorative Arts, Design History, and Material Culture. All rights reserved.
West 86th (formerly known as Studies in the Decorative Arts) is indexed and abstracted in Art Index and Art Abstracts, in Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), in Design and Applied Arts Index (DAAI), in ARTbibliographies Modern, (ABM) in ARTbibliographies Current Titles, in Book Review Index (BRI), in Historical Abstracts, and in America: History and Life.
West 86th (ISSN 2153-5531; E-ISSN: 2153-5558) is published in print twice a year on behalf of the Bard Graduate Center in New York City by the University of Chicago Press, 1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. For questions about subscriptions, renewals, address changes, and claims, contact customer service at 1.800.705.1878 (USA/Canada) or 1.773.753.3347 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. For permission to reprint, email email@example.com.
Photographs were taken or supplied by the lending institutions, organizations, or individuals credited in the picture captions and are protected by copyright. Permission has been sought for use of all copyrighted illustrations in this volume. In several instances, despite extensive research, it has not been possible to locate the original copyright holder. Copyright owners of these works should contact the Bard Graduate Center, 38 West 86th Street, New York, NY 10024.
Paul Stirton, Editor-in-Chief
Freyja Hartzell, Editor
Caspar Meyer, Editor
Ittai Weinryb, Editor
Daniel Lee, Managing Editor
Laura Grey, Designer
Board of Editorial Advisors:
Rebecca Arnold, Courtauld Institute of Art, London
Barry Bergdoll, MoMA, Columbia University
David Crowley, Royal College of Art, London
Finbarr Barry Flood, New York University
Alden R. Gordon, Trinity College, Hartford
Laurel Kendall, American Museum of Natural History, New York
Christopher Long, University of Texas at Austin
Mary McLeod, Columbia University
Stephanie Moser, University of Southampton, UK
Debora Silverman, University of California, Los Angeles
Nicholas Thomas, University of Cambridge